1. What is CCNA?
CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) is one of the popular certificates offered by Cisco. The whole course focuses on Network which includes how to plan, create, manage, and troubleshoot the network. CCNA covers the basic knowledge of IP protocols, LAN Switching Technologies, WAN Technologies, Routing Technologies, and other concepts.
2. What is the history of CCNA?
CCNA certification was developed by Cisco in 1998. It was originally called a Cisco Certified Internetwork Engineer (CCIE) in 1993 and it was created by Mr. Stuart Biggs. The CCIE was aimed towards networking skills in those days.
3. Types of CCNA Exams?
There are 10 different types of CCNA Certifications:
- CCNA Routing and Switching
- CCNA Security
- CCNA Wireless
- CCNA Service Provider
- CCNA Industrial
- CCNA Data Center
- CCNA Collaboration
- CCNA Cloud
- CCNA Cyber Ops
4. How many questions are there in CCNA exam, and how much time is given to answer them?
As of now, you have 90 minutes to answer 50-55 questions in the CCNA exam. If your native language is not English, Cisco allows you a 30-minute exam time extension. Check with the exam center.
5. What is the career scope in CCNA?
The scope of CCNA is increasing for every passing day. Most of the organizations, schools, firms, are using Cisco products for their networking needs. CCNA is the major requirement either you start your job as a network engineer or start your own business of networking products or networking services.
6. How much does the CCNA Exam 200-125 cost? And how the score is required to pass the exam?
It now costs $325
The passing score is 810/1000.
7. What is the need for CCNA?
Once you are CCNA Certified, Then will stand in a row of CCNA certified which lead to getting a job quick compared to people who are not certified. You could expect to see a raise in your salary. CCNA is globally accepted certificated among different countries.
8. What are the pre-requisite required for CCNA R&S Certification?
No Prerequisites, yes you heard it right. CCNA is an entry-level certificate that leads towards the networking domains offered by Cisco. The only thing is you should have a basic knowledge of networking.
9. What is the procedure to take CCNA?
There are two ways to take CCNA
- Pass the composite exam currently (200-125).
- Pass two individual ICND exams (currently ICND1 100-105 and ICND2 200-105). In effect, 200-125 = 100-105 + 200-105
Appointments can be made in advance or on the day you wish to take the test. You can cancel or reschedule the exam before 24 hours of the exam. You can get the refund in case you cancel the exam before 24 hours or more. You should valid English ID with you and it should have a photo of you on it.
10. What is the exam number of CCNA R&S?
The current exam number of Cisco Certified Network Associate is 200-125.
11. What are the benefits of CCNA certification?
- For sure you are going to increase the knowledge and broaden your understanding of this concept on how it works.
- Chance of getting promoted is easy with a good hike.
- CCNA Certification helps in stable employment in the reputed IT firms
- Even if you are from a non-technical background you can become a CCNA certified by clearing the examination.
- The certification keeps you active in all the latest trends and technology.
- CCNA certification will lead to many other certifications like CCNA security, CCNA wireless, and many other certifications
12. Is CCNA tough exam?
If you are new to networking it a tough exam, but not for who have hands-on experience. There are a lot of new concepts to grasp. It is recommended to take two exams i.e. CCENT and ICND2 if you are starting off as a fresher.
13. I need to know if the exam questions are the same in all the countries.
It is most likely, the exam questions are the same in all countries. But notice that Cisco has a pool of questions and each time you take the exam, a number of random questions will show up so you will not see all the same questions as the previous exam.
14. Which CCNA Course is best?
If you are fresher then start with CCNA Routing and switching, then choose the specialty after that. CCNA proves yourself for the other certifications. CCNA R&S is a pre-requisite for all the other CCNA “specializations”.
15. What exam do I need to pass to achieve CCNA certification?
There are 2 ways to achieve this certification:
- By taking two exams ICND-1 100-105 and ICND-2 200-105
- By taking only one CCNA 200-125 exam
16. What are the key areas to pass CCNA?
The CCNA exam covers many areas of networking. The most important topics are sub netting, routing (RIP and OSPF) and access lists. It is important that you read thoroughly all other topics too!
17. After completing the ICND 1 exam, how much time do I have to complete the ICND2 exam so that I can be awarded CCNA certification?
You will have 3 years after passing the ICND1 exam to complete the ICND2 exam, after which the first exam (ICND1) expires.
18. If students pass the CCNA exam using two track exam mode (CCENT+ICND2) or single track (CCNA), will they also receive CCENT certification?
No, students who certify at the CCNA level will not earn CCENT certification. The purpose of the CCENT certification is to provide an intermediate step for those who aren’t ready for CCNA.
19. Any calculator or mobile phone is allowed inside the exam hall? How do we calculate subnets etc.?
You are not allowed to bring a calculator, mobile or anything else to the exam room. You can’t use the virtual calculator in Windows, too. You will receive a piece of paper or a small board to write everything you need during the exam.
20. In the real exam, I clicked “Next” after choosing the answer; can I go back for reviewing?
No, this is a very important thing about the CCNA exam. You can just go forward! You can visit http://www.cisco.com/web/learning/wwtraining/certprog/training/cert_exam_tutorial.html to be familiar with the exam interface.
21. I failed the exam. How soon can I re-appear for the exam?
Candidates who fail an exam must wait a period of five (5) calendar days, beginning the day after the failed attempt, before they may retest for the same exam.
22. I passed CCNA. What next?
You have several options, viz 1) You can proceed to CCNP certification, or 2) Work on concentration CCNA courses such as CCNA Cloud or CCNA Security, or 3) Join a job and pursue practical skills, or 4) You can try other certs like MCSE (Systems Admin from Microsoft).
23. Can we get a job with just a CCNA certificate?
Yes, when you know and understand the technology covered in the exam and can demonstrate in the interview. The goal shouldn’t just pass the exam here the knowledge matters.
24. One I get CCNA certified, will this certification expire?
CCNA certification is valid for three years. To recertify, pass the ICND2 exam, or pass the current CCNA exam, or pass a CCNA Concentration exam (wireless, security, voice), or pass the current CCDA exam, or pass any 300 – XXX professional level or Cisco Specialist exam (excluding Sales Specialist exams), or pass a current CCIE or CCDE written exam.
25. Will I lose my job after my CCNA certificate expires?
No, you won’t lose your job after your CCNA certificate expires. Even if your certification expires the real-world experience makes you eligible for the job. I suggest before CCNA expires do CCNP for better future growth.
26. What are the job opportunities after doing CCNA certificate?
- Technical Support Engineer
- Network Engineer
- Network Engineer
- System Engineer (Computer Network/IT)
- Network Administrator
- System Administrator and There are many other professional roles
27. Is CCNA required to get CCNP certified?
Yes, to get CCNP certificate one should be certified in CCNA and should know networking technologies. To understand CCNP you should be good at CCNA. You can do CCNP before you doing CCNA, but you will not have much profit in this case. This depends on you.
28. Which certification is most in-demand – CCNA security or CCNA switching and routing?
In this case, I would say CCNA security has more demand, but the network professional must have knowledge of TCP/IP, the OSI model, and all the other fundamental networking skills which are covered by the CCNA R&S. I recommend to complete Routing and Switching and then go for CCNA Security.
29. What is CCNA syllabus?
- Network Fundamentals 15%
- LAN Switching Technologies 21%
- Routing Technologies 23%
- WAN Technologies 10%
- Infrastructure Services 10%
- Infrastructure Security 11%
- Infrastructure Management 10%
One can get the CCNA PDF cram notes for the above-mentioned syllabus.
30. How do I recertify my CCNA Routing and Switching exam?
The CCNA R&S is valid for 3 years; you can recertify the exam after this period. For detailed information, view the recertification policy for the CCNA Routing and Switching certification program.
31. Where can I register for the exam?
For Cisco Certifications, you can register online, by telephone, or by walk-in at Nearest Pearson VUE Centre. You can apply for Cisco Certification Exam in two ways:-
You can directly Visit Nearest Pearson VUE Centre and apply. Locate nearest Pearson VUE center from here
You can Apply Online by visit Pearson VUE Official Website http://www.vue.com/cisco/
32. What changes have been made in the CCNA certification from February 2020?
Cisco has now unified all of its 10-11 certificates into one CCNA certificate. There will be no CCENT or ICND1 and ICND2 exams in the newly announced Cisco certifications after 24th Feb 2020.
33. What are the questions types asked in CCNA exam?
Generally, these are the types of questions asked in the CCNA exam
- Multiple choice questions with a single answer
- Multiple choice questions with multiple answers
- Drag and drop type questions
- Fill in the blanks
- Simulation type questions
34. How is the CCNA exam conducted?
Most of the Cisco Certification Exams are delivered in a secured and proctored (Which means you are watched by cameras) environment at Person VUE Test Centres and these centers are available throughout the world.
35. Does CCNA have to do programming?
No, CCNA does not require any programming; it requires commands which is a need in the networking industry. The programming is required when you choose SDN (Software Defined Networking).
36. How much time should I spend on each sim?
You should not spend more than 15 minutes for each sim. Recall that you only have 90 minutes so if you spend 15 minutes for each sim x3 sims = 45 minutes. The 45 minutes left is for solving 40-45 MCQs.
37. What are your recommended materials for CCNA?
There are many options you can choose, but below are materials used and recommended by many candidates:
- Sybex CCNA by Todd Lammle
- Cisco Press ICND1 & ICND2 Certification Guide
- CCNA Networking Academy 1-4 (used in Cisco Academy)
- Cisco Discovery and Cisco Exploration study guide (used in Cisco Academy)
CCNA Discovery is designed for students with basic PC skills and foundational math and problem solving skills. A large number of labs encourage additional hands-on practice. CCNA Discovery helps prepare students for entry-level career opportunities, continuing education, and globally-recognized Cisco CCENT and CCNA certifications.
CCNA Discovery can be delivered as an independent curriculum or integrated into a broader course of study, such as technology or continuing education programs.
- CBT Nuggets
- Train Signal
Video training is useful for those who travel and would like to listen or view videos during travel. It would help in understanding the material easily when you are studying study guides.
- Packet Tracer
- GNS 3
- CertExams.com Network Simulator
GNS 3 requires that you have the image, which is a copyright of Cisco. CertExams.com Netsim is an all-in-one network simulator.
Websites & Forums:
- Cisco website
38. How much time should I spend on each sim?
You should not spend more than 15 minutes for each sim. Recall that you only have 90 minutes so if you spend 15 minutes for each sim x3 Sims = 45 minutes. The 45 minutes left is for solving 40-45 MCQs.
39. Can I pass without doing sims?
It is believed that one can’t pass CCNA without doing at least one or two Sims right. The required score of 800+ would be very difficult if not impossible to achieve without answering the Sims.
40. Where do I get practice tests for CCNA?
There are several sites that offer practice tests including the following:
There are several memory dump sites. It is strongly advised not to rely on dumps.
41. Which is the best app for preparing CCNA exam?
Nowadays there are lots of applications to practice and prepare CCNA, But I recommend to go with this CCNA Practice application. This application is rich in features and user- friendly app to prepare and practice.
You can get this application both Desktop and iOS Versions. This app provides more than 475+ practice questions from the latest syllabus of CCNA. You can get a complete explanation of each question in learn mode.
It supports different types of question formats like multiple choice, Drag and Drop type questions. You can also save and cross-check the wrongly answered questions
42. How do I prepare for the CCNA certification exam?
There are many good sources to learn CCNA, the thing is how much you study is not important, how you study & what you study is important. Here are some techniques to study
- Official Cert Guide: My advice is to go with the official cert guide by Cisco press, it gives you the complete topic to study
- Prepare a Study Plan: There is no use of studying without a study plan. Make a plan accordingly to your timings.
- Videos: There are lots of YouTube videos to watch, why am saying this is because of a good trainer can make you memorize the topics easily. Go with tutorials like Professor Messer and others.
- Online Study Materials: Have a look at online study materials because it gives you a quick review of concepts before taking the exam. there is a leading website like examguides.com
- Get Some Practical Experience: CCNA is Practical, If You need to crack this exam you need both practical and theoretical knowledge, Only Books can’t play a role in cracking the exam. So get some practical knowledge.
- Take Practice Exams: Take practice Exams Like multiple choices, it will boost up your knowledge. Practice exams are the best way to make sure you are ready to take the exam. Believe me; you don’t want to live the frustration of failing the exam, paying the fees one more time and re-study all over again. Exam practicing will get you used to the exam questions and make you much more confident. I would recommend this CCNA Exam sim because it was prepared by experts in the field and helps you in enhancing your score.
- Study Groups: Study Groups are like sharing knowledge so join in some study groups on Facebook, Reddit. Ask your doubts in the groups and as well as try to clear the doubts of the other.
43. Can I use short commands, for example “conf t” instead of “configure terminal”?
It is believed that short form commands are not allowed. However, you can use tab to complete the command, if allowed.
44. What is networking?
It is a process of exchanging information, ideas, files, and other electronic communication by using wired or wireless networks. The computers on a network may be linked through cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams.
45. Define an IP address?
IP (Internet Protocol) is a unique numeric label assigned to each device connected to the computer network. It has two functions which include host and location address. And it has two versions which are IPv4 (32-bits) and IPv6 (128-bits).
46. What are the different class and ranges of IP address?
There are 5 different classes of IP address:
47. What is the size of an IP address?
There are two versions of IP address. IP version 4 and IP version 6.
IPv4 address consists of 4 octets 8 bit each. Which means the size of IPv4 is 32 bit.
IPv6 address consists of 8 hexadecimal sets which make this as 128 bit long.
48. What is the difference between public and private IP address?
Public IP address: The address which is assigned to a device that is connected to the internet is called Public IP address. A public IP address could be assigned to a web server, an email server, or even an individual’s personal computer.
Private IP address: The address which is assigned to a device within a closed network which is not ready for internet connection is called Private IP address.
49. What is the difference between static and dynamic IP address?
A static IP address is reserved it won’t change over time, whereas dynamic IP address changes every time when you connect to the internet.
50. How many layers are there in an OSI reference model?
There are 7 layers in an OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) reference model. They are:
- Physical layer
- Datalink layer
- Network layer
- Transport layer
- Session layer
- Presentation layer
- Application layer
51. What is the difference between TCP/IP and OSI model?
- OSI Layer model has seven layers while the TCP/IP model has four layers.
- OSI Layer model is no longer used while TCP/IP is still used in computer networking.
52. What is the use of “ping” command?
Ping (Packet Internet Groper) command-line tool. it is used to verify that your computer can communicate over a network with another computer.
53. What is routing?
Routing is a process of transferring packets from one network to other networks.
54. What are the types of routing?
There are 3 types of routing
- Static Routing
- Default Routing
- Dynamic Routing
55. What is static routing?
It is a process of adding routes manually to the routing table. The administrator must also update the routing table when there is a change to the routing table.
56. What is dynamic routing?
Here in the dynamic routing, the routes are automatically adjusted according to the current state in the routing table. RIP and OSF are good examples of dynamic routing protocols.
57. What are the different types of passwords used in securing a CISCO router?
There are five different types of passwords used in securing a Cisco router
- Enable Password: This is a non-encrypted password. To change the enable password, you use “enable password password”
- Enable Secret: This secret password is used instead of the enable password when it exists.
- Virtual Terminal Password (vty password): The password can be changed at any time. It can be set up when you configure the router from the console.
- Auxiliary Password: Auxiliary password is used to set a password to the auxiliary port. This port is used to access a router through a modem.
- Console Password: Console password is used to set the console port password.
58. what are the different memories that are used in Cisco routers?
There are four types of memories used in Cisco routers
Flash Memory – Flash memory contains the full Operating System Image (IOS, Internetwork Operating System).
NVRAM – stores the startup configuration file for the router.
ROM – The initial bootstrap software that runs on a Cisco router is usually stored in ROM.
RAM – is used to hold running Cisco IOS Operating System and keep ARP cache.
59. What are the different types of networks in CCNA?
There are two types of network in CCNA
- Sever based network
- peer-to-peer network
60. How many ways can data be transferred in CCNA?
The data can be transferred in 3 ways
61. What do you mean by half-duplex and full-duplex?
In Half-duplex the communication between the transmitter and receiver must happen alternatively. In other words, while one point is transmitting the other must only receive. Example for half-duplex is walkie talkie.
In Full-duplex the communication between the transmitter and receiver can happen simultaneously. A telephone is the best example for full-duplex i.e one can speak and others can listen simultaneously
62. What is VLAN?
VLAN (Virtual LAN) is a subnetwork which can group together of devices in the same broadcast domain. VLANs are usually configured on switch ports.
63. Benefits of VLAN.
- VLAN provides enhanced network security. It improves security by reducing both internal and external threats
- Troubleshooting network problems are easier and faster when your different user groups are segmented and isolated from one another.
- one of the best thing in VLAN is Simplified administration for the network manager.
64. What is Subnetting?
Subnetting is nothing but it is a process of splitting a single large parent network into smaller networks. Each subnet is assigned some additional parameters or identifier to indicate its subnet number.
65. What is data encapsulation and data de-encapsulation?
- When data is sent from a higher layer to a lower layer, each layer adds some information to the original data; this is called encapsulation. The information added is called as header.
- When data is sent from a lower layer to a higher layer, each layer will remove information from the other layer. This is called as de-encapsulation.
66. What are the different types of topology?
There are 6 types of network topologies and it is categorized into
67. What does “show command” do?
It shows the IOS version, Ram space availability, and process speed.
68. What is the subnet mask of 192.168.100.1/28?
The subnet mask of 192.168.100.1/28 is 255.255.255.240.
69. Explain the difference between straight and crossover cable with examples?
Straight cable is used to connect two different layer devices like router-switch, router-pc, and switch-pc while the cross cable is used to connect two same layer devices like router-router, switch-switch, and pc-pc. Color coding for both cable is different. If color-coding on both ends of the cable is same, it is a straight cable, while if 1<–>3, 2<–>6 is being used, it is a cross cable for data transfer.
70. What is the use of “Service Password Encryption”?
Service Password Encryption command encrypts plain text password into type 7 password. These are not very much secure and can be easily decrypted.
71. What is Round -Trip Time?
Round-trip time (RTT) is the duration in milliseconds (ms). It is the time taken for a packet to travel from source t0 destination and come back to starting point.
72. What is DHCP scope?
The DHCP scope is a valid range of IP address from which DHCP server can lease to the clients on a particular subnet.
73. Benefits of DHCP server?
- An IP address can be easily managed with the DHCP server.
- You don’t need to keep a record of the IP addresses that you have assigned.
- No need for configuring each client with an IP address.
- It reduces the time required to configure and reconfigure computer in your network
74. What Is The Difference Between Broadcast Domain And Collision Domain?
Broadcast Domain: It is part of the network. A broadcast domain is a logical division of a computer network, in which all nodes can reach each other by broadcast at the data link layer.
Collision Domain: When the packets are sent across shared media the packets can collide. A collision occurs when two devices send a packet at the same time on the shared network segment.
75. What Is The Use Of “service Password Encryption”?
Service Password Encryption command encrypts plain text password into type 7 password. These are not very much secure and can be easily decrypted.
76. What is PoE?
Power over Ethernet is a technology for wired Ethernet local area networks. PoE allows electrical current for the devices to be carried out by cables rather than power chords.
77. What is EIGRP?
EIGRP stands for Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol which is evolved from Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). EIGRP is used to find the best path between any two-layer 3 devices to deliver the packet.
78. what is multicast IP for OSPF
The multicast IP for OSPF are 22.214.171.124 and 126.96.36.199
79. What is the difference between router and switch?
- A router transmits data in the form of packets whereas switch transmits in the form of frames
- A router uses the IP address for the transmission of data switch uses MAC address for the transmission of data
- The router is used for both WAN/LAN networks where the switch is used for LAN networks.
80. What is redundancy?
Redundancy is a system design in which a component is duplicated. So as if one network device goes down then the backup will work without any delay.
81. What is BootP?
It is short for Boot Program. BootP is a protocol that is used to boot diskless workstations that are connected to the network. Diskless workstations also use BootP in order to determine its own IP address as well as the IP address of the server PC.
82. What is the latency?
Latency is the amount of time delay. It is measured as the time difference between at the point of time when a network receives the data and the time it is sent by another network.
83. Define Frame Relay?
Frame relay is packet-switching technology which is used to connect two or more routers with a single interface.
84. What are the major protocols used in WAN?
- Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
- Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
- High-level Data Link Control Protocol (HDLC)- The default protocol
85. What does packet mean?
A packet is a container or a box which carries data over a TCP/IP network and internetworks. Each packet has a source and a destination.
86. What do you mean by VTP?
VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) is a proprietary protocol which is used to allow VLAN information to be propagated by switches. With VTP, you can synchronize VLAN information (like VLAN ID or VLAN name) with switches inside the same VTP domain.
87. Explain different modes in VTP.
There are 3 modes in VTP
Server Mode: This is a default mode. It allows full control over the VLAN. If a switch is using server mode it can create or delete VLANs.
Client Mode: It will not allow the VTP client switch to create or delete the VLANs.
Transparent Mode: a switch using this mode doesn’t share its VLAN database, but it forwards received VTP advertisements. You can create and delete VLANs on a VTP transparent switch, but it will not propagate to other switches, and will not advertise its own VLAN configuration.
88. What is MAC Address?
MAC (Media Access Control) Addresses are unique 48-bits hardware number of a computer. It is embedded into network cards while manufacturing so it can’t be changed.
89. What are the major states in a switch?
90. Explain the terms Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast.
Unicast: It specifies one to one communication.
Multicast: It specifies one to group communication.
Broadcast: It specifies one to all communication.
91. What are the two types of cables available?
- Straight through cable
- Crossover cable
92. Define RIP?
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a dynamic protocol which is used to find the best route or path from source to a destination over a network. It uses a uses hop count as a routing metric.
93. What is the administrative distance of RIP, EIGRP, and OSPF?
The administrative distance for:
- RIP: 120.
- EIGRP: 90
- OSPF: 110
94. What is OSPF?
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is a link-state routing protocol which is used to find the best path for packets as they pass through set of connected networks. OSPF version 2 (OSPFv2) is used with IPv4. OSPFv3 has been updated for compatibility with IPv6’s 128-bit address space.
95. Which one is the second layer of the OSI reference model?
The second layer of the OSI reference model is the data link layer. The layer is a complicated layer and has complex functionalities and liabilities.
96. What is the purpose of the data link layer?
The data link layer is responsible for the transfer of data. The main purpose of the layer is to ensure that the packet of information passed on error-free.
97. At which layer of OSI does frame relay technology work?
Frame relay work at Data link layer OSI model
98. Define STP. And why it is used?
STP stands for spanning tree protocol, it is used to ensure that you do not create loops when you have a redundant path in the network. It is a layer 2 protocol which runs bridges and switches.
99. What is TCP?
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) means that before any data transmissions can occur, certain parameters have to be negotiated in order to take place connection.
100. What is switch and switching?
A switch is a device which is used to connect multiple devices in local area network (LAN), whereas switching is called as to switch the data packets between the devices on the same network