A+ Core 1 study notes on CPU

A+ Certification : 220-1001

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CPU

Processor package types:

8088, 8086 processors used 40 pin DIPs. 80286,80386, 80486, and some Pentium computers (60MHz, 66MHz) used PGA (Pin Grid Array).

Pentium chips (75 MHz and above) used SPGA (Staggered PGA). Pentium II CPUs use catridge type mounting method, called "slot-1".

CPUs and features:

Processor

Socket type

Register

Data Bus

Address Bus

8088

DIP

16 bit

8 bit

20 bit

80286

LLC/PGA/PLCC

16 bit

16 bit

24 bit

80386SX

PGA

32 bit

16 bit

24 bit

80386DX

PGA

32 bit

32 bit

32 bit

80486SX

PGA

32 bit

32 bit

32 bit

80486DX

PGA/SQFP

32 bit

32 bit

32 bit

Pentium

Socket 5 SPGA/ Socket 7 SPGA.

64 bit

64 bit

32 bit

Pentium Pro

Socket 8 SPGA

64 bit

64 bit

32 bit

Pentium II

SEC Slot 1

Pentium III

SECC-2 / PPGA or FC-PGA

Pentium IV

socket 423/socket 478/ socket 775

64 bit

64 bit

36 bit*

Pentium Dual Core

Socket 775 (LGA775)

64 bit

64 bit

64 bit*

Pentium Quad Core

Socket 775 (LGA775)

64 bit

64 bit

64 bit*

* 32-bit operating systems like Windows XP can support only 32 bits of addressing space, and hence only 4GB of memory can be used. By using 64-bit operating systems, 16 Exa bytes (EB) of RAM can be used. 36 bits of address space can access up to 64GB of memory.

CPU models 80486SX, and above contain on board cache memory.

Address Bus Size

Maximum RAM

32 bits

4GB

36 bits

64GB

40 bits

1TB.

44 bits

16TB

64 bits

16 EB (Exa Bytes)

Bits and Bytes:

1 KB = 1024 bytes
1 MB = (1024 X 1024) bytes 
= (1024X 1 KB) bytes 
= 1,048,576 bytes 
1 GB = (1024 X 1024 X 1024 )bytes 
= (1024 X 1 MB) bytes 
= (1024 X 1024 X 1 KB) bytes 
= 1,073,741,824 bytes 
KB stands for Kilobyte 
MB stands for Megabyte 
GB stands for Gigabyte 
Byte is represented by "B" as in MB 
Bit is represented by "b" as in kbps 
One byte is 8 bits
		

The Slot 1 package replaces the Socket 7 and Socket 8 used by previous Pentium processors. Slot 1 is a 242-contact daughter card slot that accepts a microprocessor packaged as a Single Edge Contact (SEC) cartridge. A motherboard can have one or two Slot 1s. More recently, Slot 2 package has been developed and used by recent processors.

FAT file system: Under FAT file system, the maximum size of a cluster is 32 KB and the maximum number of clusters is 65536. Therefore, the maximum size of a partitions is the number of clusters multiplied by the max size of the cluster, which is equivalent to 2 GB. Remember that 1 KB = 1024 bytes.

New Technology File System (NTFS) is a file system that was introduced by Microsoft to provide superior features like encryption, compression, and user permissions. NTFS is the primary file system used in Microsoft's Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows 2003, Windows Vista, and Windows 7 operating systems.

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