A+ Core 2 study notes

A+ Certification : 220-1002

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A+ Certification awarded by CompTIA® organization is the most widely recognized certification in the area of PC hardware and software technologies. To attain A+ certification, one need to pass 2 exams, namely, A+ Core Hardware Technologies, and A+ Operating Systems Technologies. These exams basically test the skills in assembling a computer, troubleshooting, and the ability to work with various operating systems. Linux is not included in A+, as it has an exam of its own, offered by CompTIA®.

1. IDE hard disks:

2. FAT:

3. PC Utilities: The following DOS utilities are useful in proper maintenance of PCs.

4. .COM, .EXE, .BAT files are executable files.

5. DOS Boot up:


The files AUTOEXEC.BAT, CONFIG.SYS, ANSI.SYS are not required for OS start-up. However, the files IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, COMMAND.COM are required for OS start-up.

To bypass the CONFIG.SYS, and AUTOEXEC.BAT files during boot process of DOS, you need to press F5. F8 allows you to selectively bypass commands in AUTOEXEC.BAT, and CONFIG.SYS.

6. DOS allows you to set the following attributes using ATTRB command:

'+' sets and attribute

'-' clears an attribute


The command ATTRIB +H myfile.txt will make the file myfile.txt hidden. The other attributes that can be set using ATTRIB command are System, Read Only, and Archive.

The command ATTRIB C:\private.txt +h +r will mark the file private.txt as both hidden and read only.

7. DOS, Windows3.1 Windows 95/ 98 operating systems have the following characteristics:

8. The standard DOS partition cluster sizes are as given below:

Note that due to DOS limitation, the FAT on each hard drive partition can have 64K (65535) individual addresses. Therefore, it is clear, depending on the size of partition, this number dictates the size of each cluster. We arrive at 32KB cluster size by dividing 2048(MB) with 64(KB).

9. The Windows 95/98 system files include the following:

MSDOS.SYS, WIN.INI, SYSTEM.INI are text files.

SYSTEM.DAT, USER.DAT files are part of windows Registry and can be edited using REGEDIT or REGDT32 utility. Registry files can't be read with standard text editors.

Further, USER.DAT file corresponds to HKEY_LOCAL_USER and SYSTEM.DAT corresponds to HKEY_LOCAL)MACHINE.

10. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE is the hive where the information specific to the machine will be stored. The information may include, network settings, hardware drivers etc.

HKEY_LOCAL_USER hive stores data specific to user configuration, such as desktop color schemes, screen savers, wall paper, and user specific application settings.

11. Using FDISK, the following activities can be carried out:


Given below are common DOS commands that you use frequently:

Syntax: PROMPT [text]

For example, to set the prompt to current date, followed by the current drive path, issue the command: PROMPT= $p$d

13. The file load order to start DOS is :

Note that CONFIG.SYS, and AUTOEXEC.BAT are optional to load DOS. IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, COMMAND.COM are required.

14. When you format a disk with a "/s" switch (say “format a:/s”), the following files get transferred:

If you want to format a drive and also make it bootable, you need to format with /s switch.

15. Windows 95:

16. Some important TCP/IP port numbers are as given below:

17. User level security gives better control of resource on user-to-user basis. Share level security assigns passwords to the resources rather than the users and therefore less secure.

18. To pause the screen to view a large file, use |more switch. For example, to view autoexec.bat one screen at a time, type c:\autoexec.bat|more at the DOS prompt. Space bar can be used to go to next screen.

19. DNS stands for Domain Name System Server. DNS Server is the one responsible for converting the Domain names to IP addresses.

20. TSR stands for Terminate and Stay Resident. An example of TSR program is a virus detection program such as Norton Anti Virus.

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