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A+™ Essentials  Technologies


Cleaning of PC components – tools used:

Recommended cleaning procedures for various components are as below:
1. Computer Cabinet: Use Mild detergent
2. Dust inside the computer: Use Compressed air
3. Tape drive: Use tape drive cleaning catridge
4. Floppy drive: Use Floppy drive cleaning kit
5. CD ROM drive: Use CD-ROM drive cleaning kit
6. Mouse: Use cotton swab with Isopropyl Alcohol.

IsoPropyl Alcohol is recommended for cleaning PCAs such as motherboards. Mild detergent can be used for cleaning the outside cabinet or the keyboard.

The following devices require periodic cleaning:
1. Floppy drives
2. Tape drives
3. Printers
4. Mouse

Tools - Screw driver types:

· A Flat blade screw driver has Minus slot
· A Philips screw driver has X shape slot
· A Torx screw driver has star tip or head
· A Hex screw driver has hex head


- It is important to know that ESD damage may not be known immediately. A component may only suffer degradation in performance, which may show up only at a later date. In some cases, an ESD may result in the failure of the component instantly.
- When working on computers, use special ESD wrist strap. Do not directly ground yourself with a piece of wire. An ESD wrist strap has built-in resistor to prevent electric shock. Use specially designed grounded ESD mats. Do not wear synthetic clothing. Place all electronic components into anti static bags. Anti static bags can be reused. Keep your workplace clean.
- As the humidity decreases, static build up will increase. A level of 50% is considered safe. Below 50% humidity, static build up will be more.
- Electrostatic discharge (ESD) can damage the component at as little as 110 volts. CMOS chips are most susceptible to ESD.

Terminate and Stay Resident programs, as the name suggest, stay inactive in the memory area of the computer. An example of a TSR is Screen saver program. To view, which programs are consuming how much memory area, MEM command can be issued with switch "C".

If you notice that the time is constantly incorrect, even after adjusting correctly, the most likely cause is that the CMOS battery has become weak and need to be replaced.
Batteries, and chemical solvents contain environmentally hazardous chemicals and therefore, should not be disposed through dustbin. Always refer to the manufacturer's instructions or the relevant State guidelines.

Power On Self Test (POST) happens after the computer cold boots.

A computer may reboot because the CPU is overheating. Ensure that you have sufficient ventilation for proper airflow, and that the CPU fan is working.

The Hibernate option in Windows computer saves an image of your desktop, including all open windows and files. Then it powers down your computer just as if you had turned it off. When you turn your computer on again, your windows and files are open just as you left them. You can enable hibernate on a Windows computer by right clicking on the Desktop, the then selecting Properties.

The automatic restart option in Windows XP is enabled by default. As a result, if there is any major error, the Operating System will automatically restart. This can be disabled using System applet in the Control Panel.

Running a command like “ping” or “ipconfig” using Start -> Run, will open the command screen. However, the command screen closes soon after the execution of the command. If you intend to observe the results of any such command, you need to open the DOS screen by going to Program Files | Accessories | Command Prompt

It is recommended to close any open slots on a computer cabinet (case) to ensure proper airflow inside the case.

The file ntbtlog.txt file contains information collected if you choose to boot using “Boot Logging” startup option. The file shows which drivers are loaded and which have failed to load.

Riser card typically holds multiple IO cards.

When you observe any hardware damage with a PC, first turn-off and unplug the unit. Then the appropriate action would be to refer to the manufacturer’s documentation or website for warranty or maintenance information.


SRAM - Static RAM
RAM - Random Axis Memory
DRAM - Dynamic RAM
PROM - Programmable ROM
ROM - Read Only Memory
BIOS - Basic Input/Output System
DIMM - Dual-Inline Memory Module 
SIMM - Single-Inline Memory Module
SDRAM - Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
EDO DRAM - Extended Data Output Dynamic Random Access Memory
DDR-SDRAM - Double Data Rate - Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
PCMCIA - Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
ESATA - External Serial Advanced Technology Attachment
DVD - Digital Video Disc
PCI - Peripheral Component Interconnect
WXGA - Wide Extended Graphics Array
DSDD - Double Sided Double Density
DSHD - Double Sided High Density
DSED - Double Sided Extra Density
SXGA - Super eXtended Graphics Array
WSXGA - Wide Super-eXtended Graphics Array
UXGA - Ultra eXtended Graphics Array
WUXGA - Wide Ultra eXtended Graphics Array
PGA - Pin Grid Array 
FAT - File Allocation Table
ATX - Advanced Technology Extended
UPS - Uninterruptible Power Supply
COM - Component Object Model
SCSI - Small Computer System Interface
USB - Universal Serial Bus
IRQ - Interrupt Request
ISA - Industry Standard Architecture
EISA - Extended Industry Standard Architecture 
VESA - Video Electronics Standards Association 
AGP - Accelerated Graphics Port
POST - Power-On Self-Test
TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
IDE - Integrated Drive Electronics
CMOS - Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor 
PDAs - Personal Digital Assistants
SEC - Set Carry 
FC-PGA - ‘Flip-Chip' Pin Grid Array
CGA - Color Graphics Adapter
VGA - Video Graphics Array
EGA - Enhanced Graphics Adapter 
SVGA - Super Video Graphics Array

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