Exam notes for i-Net+ Exam

I-Net+ Exam

I-Net+ Certification awarded by CompTIA organization is a widely recognized certification in the area of Internetwoking technologies. To attain I-Net+ certification, one need to score at least 73%, and there will be around 72 questions. The duration of the exam is 90 minutes. These exams basically test the Knowledge of Networking Technology and Knowledge of Networking Practices. The exam consists of 65 questions and a maximum allowable time of 90 minutes. For further details, you can visit the official website here. Once you pass I-Net+, a reasonable familiarity is expected in the areas of Internet Basics, Internet Clients, Web development, Networking, Security, and business concepts. Some areas, such as TCP/IP model, Address resolution, and networking protocols, and other important basic concepts are covered in both network+ and I-Net+.

Acronyms

1. Internetwork IP addressing:

IP addresses are written using decimal numbers separated by decimal points. This is called dotted decimal notation of expressing IP addresses.

The different classes of IP addresses is as below:

Class

Format

Leading Bit pattern

Network address Range

Maximum networks

Maximum hosts/ nodes

A

N.H.H.H

0

0-126

127

16,777,214

B

N.N.H.H

10

128-191

16,384

65,534

C

N.N.N.H

110

192 -223

2,097,152

254

N: Network address part
H: Host address part

2. TCP/IP protocol suite was initially developed based on Unix operating system and it is native to Unix. TCP/IP protocol suite was added to other operating systems like Windows later.

3. ATM: ATM, Asynchronous Transfer Mode, uses 53 byte cells for all transmissions All cells are 53 byte long and consist of a 5 byte header and 48 bytes of data.

4. T1,T2, and T3 connections: The speeds of the Tx connections are as given below:

5. DSL: DSL uses existing copper phone lines. The access speeds can be up to 9 MBPS. but has distance limitations and available in only certain exchange areas.

There are several categories of DSL:

6. The range of numbers from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 is used for multicast packets. This is known as Class D address range.

7. Telnet, FTP, and TFTP:

8. A valid IP address on a host / node can't start with 127; 127.X.X.X is reserved for local loop back. A valid IP address can't be larger than 255 (in any octet), The maximum allowed value is 255 in any or combination of octets. For example, 150.206.256.31 is an invalid IP, since one octet exceeded the value 255. An example of valid IP is 202.122.154.11.

9. Tracert, Ping use ICMP as their base protocol. ICMP messages are carried in IP data grams.

10. SMTP is used to upload mail to the mail server. POP3 is used for downloading mail from a mail server to a client machine running POP3 client.

11. A firewall is a security mechanism, which prevents unauthorized access to a network or a resource on a network.

12. Important port numbers: The port numbers used by different programs are as below:

It is also important to know that FTP, Telnet, SMTP use TCP; whereas TFTP, SNMP use UDP.

13. Repeaters, Bridges, and Routers:

14. Gateway is used to translate protocols, as it works at application layer.

15. Telnet requires an username and password to access.

16. ISDN: ISDN specifies two standard access methods:

17. TCP/IP port assignments used in the Internet: Originating source port numbers are dynamically assigned by source host, and usually greater than 1023. The following are the recommended port numbers:

18. Some of the important commands useful in trouble shooting TCP/IP networks:

19. HTTP is the protocol used for accessing the World Wide Web services. HTTP operates over TCP/IP. TCP/IP is the protocol, which is used by all internet applications such as WWW, FTP, Telnet etc. IPX/SPX is proprietary protocol stack of Novell NetWare.

20. TCP is a full-duplex, connection-oriented protocol. It incorporates error checking as well. UDP (User Data gram Protocol): UDP is a thin protocol. UDP is a connectionless protocol. It doesn't contact the destination before sending the packet and doesn't care whether the packet is reached at the destination. UDP uses port number 6.

21. The core administrative unit in DNS is called "zone". A zone is a physical file composed of resource records that define a group of domains. A domain is a node in the DNS namespace and all sub-domains below it.

22. Telnet is used for terminal emulation that runs programs remotely. FTP is used to transfer files.

23. To see TCP/IP configuration on a Windows 95 / 98 computer in a graphical format, use WINIPCFG. It will display your IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, hardware MAC address and other details.

To see TCP/IP configuration in a non-graphical format or on an NT machine, use IPCONFIG. It will also display the IP configuration information on an NT machine. To get more details, use IPCONFIG/ALL.

24. A valid IP address on a host / node can't start with 127; 127.X.X.X is reserved for local loop back. A valid IP address can't be larger than 255 (in any octet), The maximum allowed value is 255 in any or combination of octets. For example, 150.206.256.31 is an invalid IP, since one octet exceeded the value 255. An example of valid IP is 202.122.154.11.

25. TCP/IP utilities:

26. PAP and CHAP:

27. HOSTS file: HOSTS file is an ASCII file and can be edited using Notepad or any other text editor. The IP address and domain name ns.dname.com of a proper entry in a HOSTS file looks like: 196.54.202.16 ns.dname.com. Hash mark (#) is used before writing the comment in HOSTS file. The entire line after the # mark is treated as comment. You can enter any number of lines into a HOSTS file. But the number of characters that each line in a HOSTS file is limited to 255.

28. PPP & SLIP:

29. Some frequently occurring HTTP error messages:

30. OSI 7 layers: The 7 layers of OSI model are:

31. FTP utility is used for transferring files between server and client. It uses TCP/IP protocol and therefore connection oriented. The ftp is a reliable (since it is connection oriented) method of data transmission.

The syntax of ftp is as below:

ftp [-v] [-n] [-I] [-d] [-g] [-s:filename] [host name].

Where,

-v Suppresses any display of server responses (verbose)

-n Prevents automatic logon when the connection with the server has been established.

-I Turns off interactive prompting during file transfers

-d Displays all ftp commands exchanged between client and server. Useful during debugging.

-g Prevents the use of wildcard characters in path and file names.

-s: filename : Specifies a text file containing ftp commands and then runs the commands within the file. This is similar to running batch file in DOS.

Hostname Specifies the host to connect to and must be the last parameter to be specified.

FTP commands:

32. Search Engines: By placing the phrase in double quotes, the search engine returns all the pages that contain the phrase. For example, to return all pages with the phrase ‘space ship’ type in the same within double quotes “space ship”; On the other hand +space +ship return all pages that contain 'space' and 'ship' not necessarily together.

33. A computer on Internet having a unique IP address is known as HOST.

34. PPTP, L2TP, and L2F:

35. A DNS zone file contains the resource records for the part of the domain for which the zone is responsible. Some of the resource records are:

The correct format for Pointer record is
<ip reverse domain name> IN PTR <host name>
ex.: 16.12.54.204.in-addr.arpa. IN PTR services.yourcompany.com
Here the IP numbers are written in backward order and in-addr.arpa is appended to the end, creating a Pointer record.

36. ARP, RARP, and BootP:

37. Proxy Server: A Proxy server is primarily used in between the Web and the client machines that reside on a LAN / intranet. It serves multiple fuctions as required, including:

38. Cookies: A cookie is a plain text file that sends out client information to the corresponding Web server, usually when the client makes a visit to the Web server. Disabling Cookies may result in improperly loaded Web pages.

39. A multi-homed computer will have atleast two IP addresses defined. These IP addresses can be defined to a single network card or there might be more than one network card with atleast one IP address defined to each. It is important to note that there can be more than one IP address defined to a single network card.

40. Only WINS update entries dynamically. All others require records to be entered manually. Remember that DNS and HOSTS resolve FQDN names to IP addresses, whereas, LMHOSTS and WINS resolve NetBIOS names to IP addresses.

41. Browsers:

42. News Service:

43. The port number needs to be specified if you are accessing a website at a port other than the default port, the default port number for WWW traffic is port 80. By default, the Web page request is sent to port 80 unless otherwise specified. For example, if you want to access a web page at port number 5064, the correctly formatted URL is http://www.yoursite.com:5064/default.htm.

44. MIME specifies how non-ASCII (binary) messages such as graphics can be sent across the Internet.

45. Features supported by HTTP1.1:

Older browsers support only HTTP version 1.0, whereas most of the modern browsers support HTTP ver.1.1

46. Server Side Includes (SSI): Server-side include (SSI) directives instruct the Web server to insert the contents of another file into an HTML page. This is a convenient way to store information used on many pages in a single file.

47. When you enable SSL communication on your Web site, you need to install a digitally certified key on your Web server.

48. At least first and second level domain names (in this case company.com) are to be registered with InterNIC for access over Internet. Third level and below can be resolved by installing DNS server.

49. FTP site can usually be configured with the following messages. Users (clients computers) get these messages when appropriate.

50. Certificate authority (CA) is any trusted third party that issues certificates and verifies the identity of a server or an individual for security purposes. A certificate is a digital signature containing the identity of a server or an individual.

51. Active Server Pages (ASP):

52. JScript, VBScript, and Java are some of the client side content tools that run on the client computers.

53. URL (Uniform Resource Locator): A URL uniquely identifies the location of a computer, directory, or file on the Internet. The URL also specifies the appropriate port to be used (if different from default port value), Internet protocol, such as HTTP or FTP. The following is an example of a correctly formed URL: http://www.microsoft.com. When no file is specified in the URL, the default.htm or default.asp file, located in the home directory of the Web site is displayed by the client's browser.

54. File Extensions: The extensions that are usually associated with some important file types are:

55. CGI and ISAPI can only be used for server side scripting.

VBScript, JavaScript, ASP are used for client side scripting.

56. XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a reduced version of SGML.

57. A DLL is used in Microsoft operating systems. DLLs' are library routines that are called to perform some common tasks within Microsoft operating environment. DLLs can also be developed by third party vendors to enable integration of their programs into Microsoft environment. Multiple programs can call a DLL.

58. If you want to embed a Pert script into html page, the correct syntax for inserting PerlScript is

<SCRIPT LANGUAGE="PerlScript" SRC="mycode.js"> </SCRIPT>

Note that "/" is placed before the SCRIPT command as shown, to signify that it is the end of the script.

59. The correct syntax for inserting Java Script into html page is

<SCRIPT LANGUAGE="JavaScript" SRC="mycode.js"> </SCRIPT>

Note that "/" is placed before the SCRIPT command as shown, to signify that it is the end of the script.

60. ODBC is Microsoft's implementation for accessing Microsoft SQL Server / Access databases from a Web Server, and delivering the results over the Web in html format to client computers.

61. The correct sequence of tags in an html page is:

<html>
<head>
<title>
</title>
</head>
<body>
</body>
</html>

Please note that the tag "title" comes between "head" tags. "title" describes the title of the page and usually appears in the Title window of the browser.

62. Correct syntax to insert a comment into html page is:

The correct syntax is <!-- your message -->

An example is 

<!-- BEGIN FASTCOUNTER LINK -->

Here 'BEGIN FASTCOUNTER LINK' is the comment that you have inserted into html code. 
		

63. HTML:

64. Some of the image / video / audio file formats available are:

65. Web Graphics:

66. A text editor such as Note pad can be used for writing HTML pages. But you need to enter all the code yourself (including html tags). On the other hand, if you are using a GUI editor to write HTML pages, inherent tags are inserted by the editor itself, such that you don't have to worry about the syntax. This will save time more efficient.

67. A Web page written in HTML can usually support the following lists:

The correct syntax for writing Ordered lists is:

		 <OL>
<L1>Bulleted item 1 
<L2>Bulleted item 2 
</OL>

Note that there is no /L1 or /L2 tag.

The correct syntax for writing Unordered lists is:

 		<UL>
<L1>Bulleted item 1
<L2>Bulleted item 2
</UL>

The correct syntax for writing Definition Lists is:

		<DL>
<DT> Definition Term 1
<DD> Definition Description 1
<DT> Definition Term 2
<DD> Definition Description 2
</DL>

Remember that CompTIA expects you to be familiar with HTML tags and writing Web pages with pure HTML.

68. Flash: Flash is from Macromedia. Flash is based on vector graphics, and used for developing dazzling Web sites. You can also incorporate animation with Flash. Flash plug-in is required to display Flash content.

Shockwave: Shockwave is also from Macromedia. Shockwave is used for displaying interactive Web sites involving video, graphics, and Audio. Shockwave plug-in is required to display web pages with Shockwave content.

69. The correct syntax of html code to start an email client on client browser is

<A HREF="mailto:support@yahoo.com"> Email Yahoo Support </A>

This command will open the clients email program and puts "support@yahoo.com" in the "TO" address field. support@yahoo.com is taken only as an example.

70. A trademark is an original and unique name or symbol that is provided legal protection indefinitely.

71. A copyright applies to orignal works of "authorship". It is protected for the life of the author and an additional 50 years.

72. There are some occasions, where it will not constitute violation of copyright law:

73. The following are valid representations of copyright display:

© 2001 Sky Publications
Copyright 2001 Sky Publications

74. SSL, Secure Socket Layer, works by using a private key to encrypt data that's transferred over the SSL connection. Both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer support SSL, and many Web sites use the protocol to obtain confidential user information, such as credit card numbers. By convention, Web pages that require an SSL connection start with https: instead of http:.

Another protocol for transmitting data securely over the World Wide Web is Secure HTTP (S-HTTP). Whereas SSL creates a secure connection between a client and a server, over which any amount of data can be sent securely, S-HTTP is designed to transmit individual messages securely. SSL and S-HTTP, therefore, can be seen as complementary rather than competing technologies. Both protocols have been approved by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as a standard.

75. Techniques for indexing a site:

76. When using "PUSH" technology, the server pushes the information to the browser, even if the browser doesn't request that information. This is different from PULL technology, wherein browser requests the information or pulls the information from the server.

77. X.509 is the most widely used standard for defining digital certificates.

78. S/MIME, Short for Secure/MIME, a new version of the MIME protocol that supports encryption of messages. S/MIME is based on RSA's public-key encryption technology.

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