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A+™ Essentials  Technologies


Processor package types:

· 8088, 8086 processors used 40 pin DIPs. 80286,80386, 80486, and some Pentium computers (60MHz, 66MHz) used PGA (Pin Grid Array).
· Pentium chips (75 MHz and above) used SPGA (Staggered PGA). Pentium II CPUs use catridge type mounting method, called "slot-1".

CPUs and features:

Processor Socket type Register Data Bus Address Bus
8088 DIP 16 bit 8 bit 20 bit
80286 LLC/PGA/PLCC 16 bit 16 bit 24 bit
80386SX PGA 32 bit 16 bit 24 bit
80386DX PGA 32 bit 32 bit 32 bit
80486SX PGA 32 bit 32 bit 32 bit
80486DX PGA/SQFP 32 bit 32 bit 32 bit
Pentium Socket 5 SPGA/ Socket 7 SPGA. 64 bit 64 bit 32 bit
Pentium Pro Socket 8 SPGA 64 bit 64 bit 32 bit
Pentium II SEC Slot 1




Pentium III SECC-2 / PPGA or FC-PGA




Pentium IV socket 423/socket 478/ socket 775



36 bit*

Pentium Dual Core Socket 775 (LGA775)



64 bit*

Pentium Quad Core Socket 775 (LGA775)



64 bit*

* 32-bit operating systems like Windows XP can support only 32 bits of addressing space, and hence only 4GB of memory can be used. By using 64-bit operating systems, 16 Exa bytes (EB) of RAM can be used. 36 bits of address space can access up to 64GB of memory.

CPU models 80486SX, and above contain on board cache memory. 

Address Bus  Size Maximum RAM
32 bits 4GB
36 bits 64GB
40 bits 1TB.
44 bits 16TB
64 bits 16 EB (Exa Bytes)

Bits and Bytes: 

1 KB = 1024 bytes 
1 MB = (1024 X 1024) bytes 
= (1024X 1 KB) bytes 
= 1,048,576 bytes 
1 GB = (1024 X 1024 X 1024 )bytes 
= (1024 X 1 MB) bytes 
= (1024 X 1024 X 1 KB) bytes 
= 1,073,741,824 bytes 
KB stands for Kilobyte 
MB stands for Megabyte 
GB stands for Gigabyte 
Byte is represented by "B" as in MB 
Bit is represented by "b" as in kbps 
One byte is 8 bits

The Slot 1 package replaces the Socket 7 and Socket 8 used by previous Pentium processors. Slot 1 is a 242-contact daughter card slot that accepts a microprocessor packaged as a Single Edge Contact (SEC) cartridge. A motherboard can have one or two Slot 1s. More recently, Slot 2 package has been developed and used by recent processors.

FAT file system:

Under FAT file system, the maximum size of a cluster is 32 KB and the maximum number of clusters is 65536. Therefore, the maximum size of a partitions is the number of clusters multiplied by the max size of the cluster, which is equivalent to 2 GB. Remember that 1 KB = 1024 bytes.
New Technology File System (NTFS) is a file system that was introduced by Microsoft to provide superior features like encryption, compression, and user permissions. NTFS is the primary file system used in Microsoft's Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows 2003, Windows Vista, and Windows 7 operating systems.

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