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Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA™)...Continued

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10. Telnet, FTP, and TFTP:

  1. Telnet is used for terminal emulation that runs programs remotely. Telnet uses TCP/IP protocol.

  2. Telnet requires a username and password to access.

  3. FTP(File Transfer Protocol) is a connection oriented protocol. It uses TCP/IP for file transfer. Compare this with TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) that uses UDP (Connectionless protocol). SNMP uses UDP over IP. Tracert, Ping use ICMP as their base protocol. FTP is used to transfer files.

  4. Both FTP and Telnet are client-server protocols. Note that TCP/IP is a client server oriented protocol.

11.  Maximum hop count supported by RIP is 15.

12.  The port numbers used by different programs are as below:

I.   FTP : Port #21

II.   Telnet : Port #23

III.   SMTP : Port #25

IV.   SNMP : Port #161

It is important to know that FTP, Telnet, SMTP use TCP; whereas TFTP, SNMP use UDP.

13.  SNMP is part of TCP/IP protocol suite. It allows you to monitor and manage a network from a centralized place by using SNMP Manager software. The systems or devices that provide the responses are called agents (or MIBs). An SNMP agent is any computer running SNMP agent software.

MIB stands for Management Information Base. It is part of SNMP agent database. A MIB records and stores information abut the host it is running on. An SNMP manager can request and collect information from an agent's MIB. Routers are typical MIB agents. SNMP agent generates "trap" messages that are then sent to an SNMP management console, which is a trap destination.

14.  Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used to resolve or map a known IP address to a MAC sub layer address to allow communication on a multi-access medium such as Ethernet. Reverse ARP (RARP) is used to obtain an IP address using an RARP broadcast. RARP can be used to boot diskless workstations over a network.

15.  The 7 layers of OSI model are :

1. The Application Layer: Application layer is responsible for identifying and establishing the availability of desired communication partner and verifying sufficient resources exist for communication. Some of the important application layer protocols are: WWW, SMTP, FTP, etc.

2. The Presentation Layer: This layer is responsible for presenting the data in standard formats. This layer is responsible for data compression, decompression, encryption, and decryption. Some Presentation Layer standards are: JPEG, MPEG, MIDI, PICT, Quick Time, TIFF.

3. The Session Layer: Session Layer is responsible for co-ordinating communication between systems/nodes.The following are some of the session layer protocols and interfaces: a) Network File System (NFS), SQL, RPC (Remote Procedure Call), X-Windows, ASP, DNA SCP.

4. The Transport Layer: The Transport Layer is responsible for multiplexing upper-layer applications, session establishment, and tearing-down of virtual circuits. This layer is responsible for flow control, to maintain data integrity. 

5. The Network Layer: There can be several paths to send a packet from a given source to a destination. The primary responsibility of Network layer is to send packets from the source network to the destination network using a pre-determined routing methods. Routers work at Network layer.

6. The Data Link Layer:

Data Link Layer is layer 2 of OSI reference model. This layer is divided into two sub-layers:

A. Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer.

B. Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer.

The LLC sub-layer handles error control, flow control, framing, and MAC sub-layer addressing.

The MAC sub-layer is the lower of the two sub-layers of the Data Link layer. MAC sub-layer handles access to shared media, such a Token passing or Ethernet.

7. Physical Layer: The actual flow of signals take place through Physical layer. At Physical layer, the interface between the DTE and DCE is determined. The following are some of the standard interfaces are defined at Physical layer: EIA/TIA-232, EIA/TIA-449,V.24,V.35,X.21,G.703,HSSI (High Speed Serial Interface).

16.  Repeaters, Bridges, and Routers:

I. Repeaters work at Physical layer (Layer 1),

II. Bridges and simple switches work at Data Link Layer (Layer 2),

III. Routers work at Network Layer (Layer 3) of ISO Reference Model.

17. CSU / DSU is an acronym for Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit. CSU/DSU is part of Customer Premise Equipment (CPE). CSU / DSU connect to a Central Office (CO), a telephone switching company located nearer to the customer.

18. Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)  IEEE Specification 802.1d is used to prevent routing loops. In Cisco Catalyst 5000 series switches, use BDPUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) to determine the spanning tree topology. STP uses a Tree Algorithm (STA) to prevent loops, resulting in a stable network topology.

19.  HTTP is the protocol used for accessing the World Wide Web services. HTTP operates over TCP/IP. TCP/IP is the protocol, which is used by all internet applications such as WWW, FTP, Telnet etc.   IPX/SPX is proprietary protocol stack of Novell NetWare.

20.      1. The term Segments is usually associated with Transport layer

           2. The term Packets is usually associated with Network Layer and

           3. The term Frames is usually associated with Data Link Layer
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